December 3, 2022

Scientific Knowledge

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Experiment : 05 (Types of Reactions)

Experiment : 05 (Types of Reactions)?


Experiment : 05 (Types of Reactions)

Aim

Performing and observing the actions of-

  1. Water on quicklime (Combination reaction)
  2. Heat on ferrous sulphate crystals (Decomposition reaction)
  3. Iron nails dipped in copper sulphate solution (Displacement reaction)
  4. Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride (Double displacement reaction) solution

Experiment: 5(A) – Combination

Materials Required

  1. Quick lime (Calcium oxide)
  2. Borosil beaker
  3. Glass rod
  4. Distilled water
  5. Dropper
  6. Test tube
  7. Litmus paper strips

Theory

When calcium oxide is mixed in water it dissolves and forms calcium hydroxide (basic in nature). During this reaction, a lot of heat is liberated and therefore it is called an exothermic reaction. The equation is as follows:

CaO(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2 (aq) + Heat ………(1)

Due to the basic nature of calcium hydroxide, it turns red litmus paper blue in colour. When carbon dioxide gas is passed through the calcium hydroxide the solution turns milky colour.

Ca(OH)2 (aq) + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O

In the reaction (1) slaked lime is formed by combining two products quick lime and water. Therefore when two or more than two substances combine to give a single product it is termed as combining reaction.

Procedure

  1. Wash a borosil beaker with distilled water and dry it.
  2. Take a small amount of calcium oxide (quick lime) and slowly add water to it.
  3. Wash and take a clean glass rod to stir the mixture of quick lime and water.
  4. Touch the beaker carefully from outside.
  5. Observe the change.
  6. With the help of dropper take a few drops of the mixture from the beaker and place it on red and blue litmus paper strips.
  7. Wait and observe.

Observation

ExperimentObservation
Mixture in beakerA hissing sound is heard during the reaction when water is added to the beaker containing quick lime. Due to the evolution of heat during the reaction the temperature increases and makes the solution hot.
Solution on litmus paperDrops on the red litmus paper strip change the colour of the paper to blue whereas there is no colour change observed on the blue litmus paper.

Result and Conclusion

From the above experiment we can conclude that the reaction occurred between calcium oxide (Quick lime) and water combine to produce one single product slaked lime (Ca(OH)2) is called combination reaction as well as an exothermic reaction.

Precautions

  • Take a small amount of compound such as quick lime to perform the experiment.
  • Since the reaction is exothermic avoid touching the mixture directly.
  • Use good quality glass beaker during the experiment because if the beaker is of poor quality then there are chances of crack on the beaker due to the exothermic reaction.

Experiment 5(B) – Decomposition

Materials Required

  1. Ferrous sulphate crystals
  2. Test tube holder
  3. Boiling tube
  4. Bunsen burner
  5. Litmus paper strips

Theory

Ferrous sulphate crystals are ferrous sulphate heptahydrate with a chemical formula FeSO4.7H2O and are green in colour.

On eating the ferrous sulphate heptahydrate it loses seven water molecules to form anhydrous ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) and is white in colour. The reaction is as follows:

FeSO4.7H2O → FeSO4(s) + 7H2O ………….(1)

(Green colour) (white colour)

Ferrous sulphate when heated is decomposed to ferric oxide, sulphur trioxide, and sulphur dioxide. The reaction is as follows:

2FeSO4.7H2O(s) → Fe2O3(s) + SO2(g) + SO3(g) + 14H2O(g)

Experiment : 05 (Types of Reactions)
Decomposition Reaction
Procedure
  1. Take 2 grams of ferrous sulphate crystals in the tube.
  2. Make a note of the colour of the crystals.
  3. Use a test tube holder to hold the boiling tube.
  4. Heat the boiling tube on the bunsen burner as shown in the figure.
  5. Tiny colourless water droplets are seen near the neck of the tube.
  6. Gently turn it towards your nose and smell for any gas evolved.
  7. Hold the litmus paper strips near the mouth of the boiling tube.
  8. Observe the change

Observation

ExperimentObservation
Boiling tube testColour of Ferrous sulphate crystals changes from green to white and later brown. The gas evolved smells like burning sulphur.
Litmus paper testBlue litmus paper strip turns red when comes in contact with gas.
Result and Conclusion

From the above experiment we can conclude that the reaction occurred on heating ferrous sulphate crystals is decomposition reaction which decomposes to produce Fe2O3, SO2, and SO3. Since this decomposition reaction is carried out by heating.

Precautions

  • Do not keep the mouth of the boiling tube towards yourself.
  • Do not smell the gas by directly getting it under your nose but gently turn it towards your nose and blow it with your hand.
  • Use good quality boiling tube while heating the ferrous sulphate crystals.

Experiment 5(C) – Displacement

Materials Required

  1. Test tube stand and two test tubes
  2. Two iron nails
  3. Measuring cylinder
  4. Beaker
  5. Sandpaper
  6. Copper sulphate solution
  7. Distilled water

Theory

As per the reactivity series, the more reactive metals displace the less reactive metals. When iron is compared with copper, it is placed above copper in activity series.

When iron nails are placed in CuSO4 iron displaces copper from copper sulphate to form ferrous sulphate. The iron nails get deposited with a brownish red substance of the copper metal. The reaction is as follows:

Fe(s) + CuSO4(aq) → FeSO4(aq) + Cu(s)

Procedure
  1. Label the test tube as P and Q.
  2. Add 20mL of distilled water in the test tube and mix copper sulphate crystals in P.
  3. Transfer 10Ml of solution from P to Q.
  4. Take two iron nails by cleaning them with sandpaper.
  5. Take one iron nail and dip it in the CuSO4 in test tube P for 15 minutes.
  6. Take another iron nail and dip it in the CuSO4 in test tube Q for 15 minutes.
  7. Observe and Record your results.

Observation

ExperimentBefore ExperimentAfter Experiment
Colour of CuSo4BlueGreen
Colour of iron nailSilvery greyBrownish red coating

Result and Conclusion

From the above experiment we can conclude that the reaction occurred when iron nails were dipped in the copper sulphate solution for 15 minutes the colour of the solution changes to green and brownish red copper metal is deposited on the nail. Therefore this is a displacement reaction.

Precautions

  • Clean the iron nails by sandpaper before dipping in a copper sulphate solution.
  • Make dilute CuSO4 for the experiment otherwise, the colour change will not be seen in its concentrated form.

Experiment 5(D) – Double Displacement

Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride solution experiment

Materials Required

  1. Test tube stand
  2. Measuring cylinder
  3. Two test tubes
  4. Glass rod
  5. Conical flask
  6. Barium chloride solution
  7. Sodium sulphate solution

Theory

Reactions occurring in the solution by exchanging ionic compounds to form new compounds are called double displacement reactions.

When two solutions sodium sulphate and barium chloride are mixed, double displacement reaction as below occurs.

Na2SO4(aq) + BaCl2(aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(s)

Procedure

  1. Label the test tube as P and Q.
  2. Pour 5mL of barium chloride in the test tube P and observe the colour.
  3. Pour 5mL of sodium sulphate in the test tube Q and observe the colour.
  4. Take a conical flask and pour the solutions from both the test tube into it.
  5. Keep it undisturbed for some time.
  6. Observe the change in colour of the solution.
  7. Record your results in the below-given table.

Observation

ExperimentObservation
Colour of test tube P and test tube QColourless
Mixture of solution in conical flaskPrecipitation is formed

Result and Conclusion

From the above experiment we can conclude that the reaction occurred on mixing the solutions of barium chloride and sodium sulphate produce a white precipitate compound by exchanging their ions. This reaction is known as a double displacement reaction.

Precautions

  • The volume of sodium sulphate and barium chloride should be equal.
  • While combining the solutions in the mixture pour sodium sulphate first and then slowly add barium chloride to it.

Experiment : 05 (Types of Reactions)?

Experiment : 05 (Types of Reactions)

Experiment -01 To determine the pH of the given samples using pH paper or universal indicator. The samples whose pH has to be determined are-

Experiment -02 To experimentally demonstrate that carbon dioxide is released during the process of respiration.

Experiment -03 To study about (a) Binary Fission in amoeba and (b) Budding in yeast with the help of prepared slides.

Experiment -04 To study the dependence of potential difference (V) across a resistor on the current (I) passing through it and determine its resistance. Also, plot a graph between V and I

Experiment – 05 Performing and observing the actions of-

  1. Water on quicklime (Combination reaction)
  2. Heat on ferrous sulphate crystals (Decomposition reaction)
  3. Iron nails dipped in copper sulphate solution (Displacement reaction)
  4. Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride (Double displacement reaction) solution

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